The Scientific Method is the procedure of test to examine a truth based on logical considerations. Ideally, Science is used to obtain a systematic interrelation of facts, while The Scientific Method is used to seek answers about a fact by using a systematic approach towards skepticism.
Research and Scientific Method have a very close relationship, but they are not the same. The Scientific Method may help a researcher to easily answer certain questions in a research, such as answering general propositions like how far, why, is it true, and so on.
According to Almadk (1939), “The scientific method is a way to apply logical principles to the discovery, validation, and explanation of a truth”.
While Ostle (1975) argues that “The Scientific Method is the pursuit of something to get something interrelations.”
In brief to describe, below are the criteria of the scientific method and certain steps of the scientific method which you are able to use in examining the criteria.
We are the recipients of the scientific method. We can each be a creative and active part of it if we so desire.-Kary Mullis
The Scientific Method Criteria
The method that is used in a study or a research or a thesis can be called as the scientific method. Then, the method should have the following criteria:
The Object of The Research Must be Based on Facts
In collecting data for the research, you need to find good information that you’ll need to and analyze and you must get it from real facts. In addition, the information or evidence must not be discovered based on imagination, roughly, myth or similar types of statements.
Free of Prejudices
You you might also know, the scientific method must have the nature of prejudice-free, clean, and away of subjective considerations. In other words, you must use real information based with certain reasons and evidences and you must complete it with objective evidence.
Using the Principle of Analysis
In understanding and giving interpretation for a complex phenomena, we must use the principle of analysis. In assuming all of the problems, they must be having relation to the causes and solutions by using logical analysis. It is important to support the fact. But, all the issues must look for the causality by using the sharp analysis.
Using the Hypothesis
In the scientific method, researchers should follow the process of thinking by using analysis. A hypothesis should be there to pile problems and unite the mind toward the goal a researcher yould like to achieve, so that the researcher obtain the results that will hit the target exactly. The hypothesis is the typical handle in pointing the way of the researcher thinking.
Using Objective Size
In performing a research, you must stating the research and and analysis work objectively. The size should not be a feel-sense or conscience to obey. You must make considerations objectively and with a sane mind.
Using Quantification Techniques
In using and treating a common quantitative measure of data, there are certain attributes you cannot be quantify, such as (the measures) tons, mm, per second, ohms, kilograms, etc and you should also always stay away from using measures such as: as far as the eye could see, as black asphalt, as far as a cigarette, and so on. The easiest quantification is to use the nominal size, ranking and rating.
In the implementation of a research using the scientific method must you must through certain steps. Let’s first review the steps taken by some experts in carrying out their research. Schluter (1926) gives 15 steps in conducting research with the scientific method. The steps are as follows:
- Selection of the field, topic or title of the study.
- In solving problem, you need field of surveys to formulate the problems.
- Build a bibliography.
- Formulate and define the problem.
- Distinguish and make an outline of the elements of the problem.
- Classify each of the elements in the problem according to its relationship with the data or the evidence, either directly or indirectly.
- Determine which data or evidence that is in accordance with the desired basis points in the problem.
- Determine each data or evidence needed whether available or not.
- Test to know whether you can solve the problem or not.
- Collect the necessary data and information.
- Systematically organize the data that you will use in the analysis.
- Analyze the obtained data and evidence in making interpretation.
- Adjust the data for calculating the percentage of possibility and the accuracy of the interpretation.
- Use cites, references and footnotes (footnote).
- Write research reports.
In carrying out a scientific research, Abclson (1933) gives these following steps:
1. Specifying the Title
Express the research title briefly and clearly.
2. Selection of the Problem.
In the selection step, the researcher should meet following points:
- Stating suggestion in the title.
- Giving reasons for the selection and expressing why we need to investigate certain problems in the public interest.
- Stating the scope of the study by briefly in describing the material, the situation, and other matters should have relation to the research scope.
3. Solving Problems
In solving problems or troubleshooting, the researcher should meet the following points:
- The analysis and the elements that can solve the problems must be logical. Arrange the form of evidence in a systematic and logical way.
- You should briefly to state the procedure you will use for the research should.
- Sort the data, the facts and the descriptions as required.
- Stating how you obtain the data, including references for the research.
- Demonstrate how you process the data in order to have significant in the troubleshooting.
- Sort the assumptions and the relation in various phases of the research.
4. Making Conclusion
- Give the conclusion for the hypothesis and some statements for the conclusions.
- Give the implications for the conclusions and explain those implications by giving a few inferences.
5. Making Bibliography
Give the references sources if you get some sources from other researches or books you use to solve the problem. Turn on the earlier work briefly and give references as the bibliography which may be useful in solving problems.
Steps in The Scientific Method
From some guidance above, you can see that using the scientific method in a research at least followed with the following steps:
Formulating and Defining Issues
The first step in a research is to establish problem solving for the problem in order to eliminate any doubt. You should define the problem clearly and to which the broad of issues you would . Mention a few key words that found in the problem instance. For example, The Influence of Mechanization towards Farm Revenue in California.
Give the definition of farming, about mechanization, in what season. And so on.
Conducting Library Research
Once you finish formulating the problem, the second step is to carry out in searching the available data that previous researchers have written which has relation to the problem you would like to solve. Try to find out some materials in libraries which are conducted by researchers. Sometimes, you can do the problem formulation and decision for the research simultaneously.
Formulate The Hypothesis
In obtaining the information about the results of the research by other experts in the past, they must have nothing to do with the problem you would like to solve. Then, it is the time for you to formulate the hypothesis for the research. The hypothesis is none other than tentative conclusions about the connection between certain variables or phenomena in the study. A hypothesis is a tentative conclusion that is accepted for a while before being tested.
Determining a Model for Testing the Hypothesis
After you set the hypotheses, then the next work is to formulate certain ways to test it. In a developed social such as economic fields, the testing of a hypothesis is based on an analytical framework which has been determined. The mathematical model can also reflect the inter-phenomenon relations which are implicit in the tested hypothesis with available statistical techniques.
In testing the hypothesis, you need to collect data collected for that purpose. Therefore, such data could be prime data or secondary data that which other researchers may use in other new researches.
Collecting The Data
You will need the data to test hypotheses. The data must rely on the fact and you will use it to test the hypothesis depending on the problems and methods you sellect which you will use in the research. Data collection techniques will vary if the research uses experimental methods. E.g. the data obtained and experiment plots which are made by some researchers in historical method or normal survey, the data obtained by raising questions to the respondents, either directly or by using a questionnaire. There are times where you need to gain the data by doing direct observation towards human behavior in a participatory manner. In which you are in a group of people who are being investigated.
Compile, Analyze, and Develop The Interference
Once you finidh collecting the data, you need to compile the data for analysis purpose prior to starting the analysis. You should prepare the data in advance to facilitate the analysis. The preparation of the data can be in the form of a label or coding for analyzing using a computer. After analyzing the data, it needs some interpretations.
Make Generalization and Conclusion
After giving interpretation, then you need to generalize it based on your findings, and then you need to give some conclusions. In writing the conclution, the conclution and the generalization must relation to the hypothesis. Whether the hypothesis is correct and accepted or wrong and rejected.
Creating a Scientific Report
After all, the final step of a scientific research is making a scientific report for the results you have gained from these research with the proper scientific writing technique.